Blog 2 –
As you read and listen to see that each level is based on the level before. You see in the reading the talk of community sharing. Flickr was one of the application someone could subscript to and have followers. In 2005 that was used first by a group of photographers both amateur and professional at a Coney Island parade. But this was not just for the novelist pictures from a Transport bombing were first uploaded to Flickr via a cellphone and was able to provide pictures before any news service have photographs. It was also a way for someone to let a friend or family member know their status by making a comment. It was used in trails, to find missing persons. If you look at both the semaphore to the internet it was a way for one group to communicate with the another group.
Replica of a semaphore tower
We can go back further in signal communication to smoke signals and the sounds of drums in China, Egypt and Greece. It was in 1971 that two French men Claude and Ignace Chappe created the semaphore. An optical telegraph system to relay messages from hilltop to hilltop at short distances with black and white panels. This was used in several other European cities including London during the battle of Waterloo. One of the major problems was the system was not available if weather did not permit or could not be used after dark. A form of semaphore is still used today by the military in what is called flag semaphore.
Navy seaman using flag semaphore today
Was used for a short time to deliver mail and messages from Missouri to California. Normal delivery and response was 10 days but it the weather was bad it could take up to 16. It was a short lived delivery service of only eleven months before the introduction of the telegraph.
Pony Express (1860-1861)
Introduction of electricity changes came in communications.
It was the invention of the battery—a source of electricity for a telegraph—by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) in 1800 that made semaphore obsolete. The telegraph provided a means for sending messages across wires at the speed of light. Several researchers in different countries attempted to exploit the communications aspects of this discovery. The first successful device, however, was invented by two Englishmen, William Fothergill Cooke (1806–1879) and Charles Wheatstone (1802–1875). Cooke and Wheatstone designed a telegraph system in 1837 that used five needles to point to letters of the alphabet and numbers that were arranged on a panel. Their electric telegraph was immediately put to use on the British railway system.
Samuel F. B. Morse (1791–1872), who devised a telegraphic method that eventually was adopted worldwide. Morse made use of ideas and suggestions provided by other scientists and inventors, including those of American physicist Joseph Henry (1797–1878) and a young mechanic named Alfred Vail (1807–1859). His first public demonstration was made at Vail’s shop in Morristown, New Jersey, in 1837.
The commercial success of Morse’s invention was assured in 1843 when the U.S. government appropriated funds to build a pole line from Baltimore, Maryland, to Washington, D.C. On May 24, 1844, Morse sent the first telegraphic message along that system: “What hath God wrought?” The system became popular very quickly at least partly because skilled operators discovered that they could “read” a message by simply listening to the sound of the telegraph’s clicking.
Morse’s telegraph consists essentially of a source of electricity (such as a battery), an electromagnet, and an electric switch known as the key. To send a message, the operator presses down on the key. As the key comes into contact with a metal plate beneath it, an electric circuit is completed. Electricity flows out of the telegraph, into external electrical wires, to waiting receivers in other parts of the world.
But because of the telegraph the telephone was introduced first only to the very wealthy. It contributed to development of city centers and it eliminated the need for some jobs. In 1877 there were only 6 telephones by 1910 there were 5,800,000 can you imagine the number today? Telephones bring the world closer and even more connected.
Introduction of the World Wide Web and Internet
This door was opened in 1975 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate Whitfield Diffie and Stanford University professor Martin Hellman. The two were searching for a way to share encrypted messages between two people who didn’t know each other, and thus couldn’t have devised their own scrambling formula beforehand. The Diffie-Hellman algorithm that resulted was the birth of contemporary public-key cryptography, the dominant cryptographic infrastructure used on the Internet.
Encryption is the scrambling of text-based messages into unrecognizable code via a complex mathematical algorithm. Only those with the correct “key” are able to encrypt or decrypt such a message in a given cryptographic system. The key is a set of specific parameters, based on the algorithmic encryption formula, that act to lock and unlock the coded information. The formula typically consists of a long string of bits, sometimes more than 200 digits long. The more digits involved and the more complicated the algorithmic equation used to generate the code, the more difficult the hacker’s job in breaking it.
The Linux kernel, or the program’s essential core, was created in the early 1990s by Linus Torvalds, a Finnish computer science student. According to writer Gerry Dorman, Torvalds developed Linux as an alternative to the Unix operating system, which he found to be expensive and incompatible with PCs. Torvalds based his creation on a Unix-like program called Minix. As it adheres to a number of UNIX standards and architectures, Linux is often seen as part of the UNIX lineage and as a particular implementation of UNIX. This was published on line and free to download. No copyrights.
Tim Berners Lee
His proposal to develop an interactive, universal interface for use on the Internet—the project that would become the World Wide Web—was twice rejected at CERN until he put the lab’s 10,000-name phone book into his programming language as a prototype to show the Web’s possibilities. His prototype, designed to function in a “brain-like way” but also to track and connect all the random associations that are often buried in the brain, was called Enquire within upon everything. In just two months, he gave the Pentagon-funded, technical-user-oriented communications program known as the Internet a human face, ready for global use. Bypassing the need for large centralized registries, he developed uniform resource locators (URLs), as well as hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) for transferring data to and from any connected computer. He also designed the lingua franca of the Web: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Thus, the World Wide Web was born in 1991, at which point he simply gave it all away for free, only promoting its wider use.
Marc Andreessen In the early 1990s he attended the University of Illinois, studying—computer science. He was not much of a student; focusing his attention instead on a burgeoning career in computers. To earn money he worked part-time as a programmer for the university’s National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), a conglomeration of undergraduates, graduate students, and professors. In the early 1990s the new buzzword at NCSA was “networking,” which was fueled by the Internet backbone being developed by the National Science Foundation. The NCSA group was working to expand the Internet by enabling computers to link together across the country and the world.
In 1989 Swiss physicist Tim Berners-Lee created a browser that allowed users to navigate through documents on the World Wide Web with by simply pointing and clicking with the| computer mouse. The only problem was that it was text based and not very user friendly. Andreessen was convinced he could improve upon Berners-Lee’s browser and convinced Eric Bina, another NCSA employee, to help him. Their new and improved browser, Mosaic, used a graphic visual interface, making it easier to use. Mosaic was introduced in March 1993 and was a huge hit. Within 18 months, it had helped the number of users on the Internet jump to 20 million. This was offered on line and for free even today. **Note the university trademarked Mosaic** and one of the main browers used by the university is Firefox (Mozilla) which is the off spring of Netscape.
University of Illinois NCSA Building
Later that same year, Andreessen left NCSA and was contacted by the founder of Silicon Graphics, Jim Clark, who wanted to start a new company. With four million dollars of Clark’s money, they formed Mosaic Communications in Mountain View, California. In the spring and early summer of 1994 Andreessen and a group of programmers began working on building a bigger and better Internet browser. Their goal was to make the new browser even easier to use in order to target a mass-market audience. In November 1994 Andreessen and Clark changed their company’s name to Netscape Communications.
Telegraph UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. Rob Nagel. Vol. 10. 2nd ed. Detroit: UXL, 2002. P1863-1866. From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
History of the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce. Ed. Jane A. Malonis. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2002. p369-372. From Gale Virtual Reference Library
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce. Ed. Jane A. Malonis. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2002. p772-773. From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Cryptography, Public and Private Key Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce. Ed. Jane A. Malonis. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2002. p164-165. From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Linux Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce. Ed. Laurie J. Fundukian. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2012. p459-460. From Gale Virtual Reference Library